The Idea of an Immortal Soul in Phaedo. The Belief Systems Essay Example

The Idea of an Immortal Soul in Phaedo. The Belief Systems Essay Example

In the Platonic dialogue of Plato Socrates’ main argument to his listeners can be broken into two main premises, the first being the conclusion drawn mainly from the argument of affinity, and the theory of recollection; that the soul is immortal. The second being that knowledge gained in our life on earth is a preparation for the afterlife. This would conclude that philosophy is a useful practice to humans. Although Socrates draws an agreeable conclusion, he fails to justify it due to the weakness of his first premise. Socrates fails to adequately defend that philosophy is a good practice as his claim rests on the fact that a soul is immortal: He does not provide a compelling argument for the immortality of souls, and Socrates begins with the argument from opposites. Socrates explains that everything that has come to be, has come to be from it’s opposite. A tall man has only become tall due to him being previously short and something that is hot only could become hot due to it first being cold. He uses the relationships drawn from his examples to deduce that life spawns from death and vice versa and states all of this implying that there is in fact life after death, and the transition back and forward between the two should not be feared by him or his friends, as the soul exists, unlike the body, in an endless cycle of either a state of life or death.He then moves to his theory of recollection. What Socrates says next is based on the assumption of innate (A Priori) knowledge, which Plato will later delve into and classify as forms. Socrates states that, for example, we have a clear idea of a perfect triangle, yet do not need to sensibly see one to have the idea of its true perfect ‘form’. To have knowledge prior to birth implies again that the soul needs not an association with a body to maintain knowledge so the same conclusion again can be drawn, the soul is immortal.Socrates’ then states his argument from affinity Socrates in this argument distinguishes simple things from composite. What is composite, being made up of parts/pieces can be changed, while on the other hand things that are simple are unalterable; they are fixed as they are only made of one thing. Death is able to deconstruct the composite buildup of the body but has no effect on the soul and therefore when the body dies the soul carries on, unchanged and immortal.Socrates’ argument of recollection relies on the premise that we perceive things that imitate perfection but have an a priori knowledge of perfection without seeing perfection firsthand. Granted that humans are capable of understanding a perfect triangle (or any other form for that matter) without perceiving it sensibly. That however does not conclude that the idea was innate knowledge. For this counter argument, it must be assumed that human intelligence is relatively similar to artificial intelligence (AI) with respect to basic learning. Captcha is a machine used to develop AI’s understanding of, let’s say, for the purpose of a perfect example, what a triangle is. (Along with everything else that AI could usefully understand) “Essentially, the way machine learning works is that you hand the machine a bunch of data that is already sorted – say, a bunch of images of cats that you have tagged as cats, and then it uses this information to build a neural network that enables it to pick the cats out of other images. The more pictures of cats that you feed it, the more accurate the AI becomes at picking out cats from other images” (O’Malley, 2018). This explains the way we have a clear idea of what a perfect triangle is, we see hundreds of imperfect triangles and are able to draw only the similarities of each to collect an idea of what a perfect triangle is, similar to the way AI would. As we know, AI does this without innate knowledge or a soul.To raise doubt in Socrates’ argument from affinity, I will attempt to invalidate Socrates’ defence to a counter argument provided by Simmias: “But even though a musical harmony is invisible and akin to the divine, it will cease to exist when the lyre is destroyed.  Following the soul-as-harmony thesis, the same would be true of the soul when the body dies” (85c-88c). His first defence is that something cannot be attuned prior to the materials it is composed of. Socrates is correct, but not in the way he thinks, he says this with the assumption the soul is immortal. Assuming my argument above is correct, he has not adequately proved that the soul is immortal in the first place, therefore deeming his defence to this doubtful as indeed the attunement of the soul did not exist before the materials it is composed of; it didn’t exist at all. He then claims that if it were the case that the soul is similar to a harmony/attunement, then some souls would be more in harmony than others. For an instrument to be in perfect tune, there are certain conditions that must be met. The soul is the result of perfect conditions that are met through birth that allow the soul to exist. A soul is similar to a perfect attunement, a perfect attunement cannot be surpassed, all perfect attunement, if truly perfect, are exactly the same. The majority of Socrates’ logic throughout the dialogue rests on an inadequately proven assumption that there is an immortal soul.Socrates makes a logical argument for the benefits of practicing philosophy but fails to be sound due to the weakness of his arguments to prove the existence of an immortal soul. The raised doubts in the idea of an immortal soul through comparisons made in this essay to AI and the tuning of an instrument has hopefully created a quite reasonable doubt in Socrates’ idea of an immortal soul which in turn invalidate the majority of Phaedo’s arguments, due to the large portion of his logic resting on the presumption of the immortal soul. Philosophy may be a good thing to practice but he does not prove the reasoning for such is in preparation for the afterlife.

 

Questions Related to The Idea of an Immortal Soul in Phaedo. The Belief Systems Essay Example

Did not find what you wanted? Get help from our experts.

Find a Perfect and Reliable Professional Essay Writer Helper to write your essay for a Reasonable Price.

best essay writing service

Need help with your Assignment?

Give us your paper requirements,and we’ll deliver the highest-quality essay at only $13 a page.

Some of the free features you will receive:

Find a perfect and reliable professional for your essay writing needs.

Essay Writing Services

If you are a student who is struggling to meet tight deadlines, we are here to help! Do you need to employ an essay writing service? Hire us if you want the best essays. We are a dedicated staff of professional, well-seasoned, and superb essay writer helpers.

Dissertation Writing Services

Did you know we provide the best dissertation writing service on the internet? We continue to receive favorable feedback from our consumers about the excellent work we produce. So, instead of worrying about whom to pay for the dissertation, contact us. We are a dedicated staff of professional, well-seasoned, and superb essay writer helpers.

Assignment Writing Services

We attempt to provide the essay help you require ensuring, that your papers are of the highest quality. When you decide to work with us, we assess your requirements and find the best writer to assist you with your essay. We are a dedicated staff of professional, well-seasoned, and superb essay writer helpers.

Nursing Essays Writing Services

Here’s how it works: you place an order for a nursing essay, and we deliver. It’s as easy as it sounds. This is workable because we have the greatest professional paper writers that are both quick and skilled. We will assign your assignment to the most qualified writer

Coursework Writing Help

Our staff of qualified and professional paper writers has continuously distinguished us as the best coursework writing help service. They are all-natural English speakers with advanced degrees in a variety of professions. We offer the best essay writing services.

Article Writing Services

Our knowledgeable and expert article writing paper writers have advanced degrees in a variety of subjects. We will assign the most appropriate one to you based on the field and topic of your article review. They are all fluent English speakers who fully grasp your requirements. We are a dedicated staff of professional, well-seasoned, and superb essay writer helpers

You May Also Like…

Home

Essay Writing Service for working students Is it an essay, an article, or a report? Worry No More!! We offer solutions...

read more

0 Comments

Submit a Comment

Your email address will not be published.