Ray’s Theory of Bureaucratic Caring Essay.

Ray’s Theory of Bureaucratic Caring Essay.

Ray’s Theory of Bureaucratic Caring Essay., ,Copyright © 2015. F.A. Davis Company,Chapter 27
Marilyn Anne Ray’s Theory of
Bureaucratic Caring,Developed by S. Gordon (2005),Revised by C. A. Blum (2010),Updated by D. Gullett (2014),*,Copyright © 2015. F.A. Davis Company,On completion of this chapter, students will be able to:,Describe Ray’s Theory of Bureaucratic Caring.Ray’s Theory of Bureaucratic Caring Essay.,Outline the development of the Theory of Bureaucratic Caring.,Discuss organizational cultures as transformational bureaucracies.,Identify and discuss characteristics of bureaucracies.Ray’s Theory of Bureaucratic Caring Essay.,Compare and contrast the terms “formal” and “substantive” theory.,Describe what distinguishes organizations as cultures from other paradigms, such as organizations as machines.,Explain the paradox of serving a bureaucracy and serving humans using an example from clinical practice.,Compare and contrast the Theory of Bureaucratic Caring and the revised Holographic Theory of Bureaucratic Caring.,Discuss the relevance of complexity science to theory development.,*,Copyright © 2015. F.A. Davis Company,Purpose of the Chapter,Discuss contemporary nursing culture
Share Dr. Ray’s theoretical views and vision of nursing
Discuss the Theory of Bureaucratic Caring
As grounded theory
As holographic theory
*,Copyright © 2015. F.A. Davis Company,Generation of Bureaucratic Caring Theory,Used three research approaches
Ethnography (hospital as a culture)
Phenomenology (meaning of caring in the life world)
Grounded theory method (the structure and process of caring within the complex organization)Ray’s Theory of Bureaucratic Caring Essay.
*,Copyright © 2015. F.A. Davis Company,Theory Revisited,Ray revisited the theory and discovered the theory incorporated many concepts from the new sciences of complexity
The theory was revealed as holographic
The holographic model depicts the primacy of caring as spiritual-ethical and the other dimensions as equal, interfacing between the spiritual and ethical and the bureaucratic dimensions.Ray’s Theory of Bureaucratic Caring Essay.
*,Copyright © 2015. F.A. Davis Company,The Theory of Bureaucratic Caring,Invites us to view how a new model may facilitate understanding of how nursing can be practiced in modern health care (Ray, 2006)
Is a holistic theory with a practical purpose that facilitates our understanding of nursing practice in complex contemporary health-care environments.Ray’s Theory of Bureaucratic Caring Essay.
*,Copyright © 2015. F.A. Davis Company,Dr. Ray Believes,Given the nature of nursing as expanded consciousness and theory as wakefulness,
Nurses need nursing theory to stimulate thinking and critique as they function in the complex world of nursing science, research, education, and practice
*,Copyright © 2015. F.A. Davis Company,Holographic Theory,Holography means that the implicate order (the whole) and explicate order (the part) are interconnected that everything is a Holon, including humans, in the sense that everything is a whole in one context and a part in another-each part being in the whole and the whole being in the part
*,Copyright © 2015. F.A. Davis Company,The Theory of Bureaucratic Caring as a Holographic Theory,Holistic science (and art),captures the idea that all systems, including health care systems, are living systems
both wholes and parts
depend on networks of relationships, information, choice and communication flow
*,Copyright © 2015. F.A. Davis Company,The Theory of Bureaucratic Caring as a Holographic Theory
Furthers the vision of nursing and organizations as complex, dynamic, relational, integral, informational, and emergent—open to sets of possibilities
Synchronicity of interacting parts and the whole
Everything interconnects
We are all creative manifestations of the oneness of the environment (context), moving in relationship, and continually transforming (emerging—growing and developing) (Thoma, 2003).Ray’s Theory of Bureaucratic Caring Essay.
*,Copyright © 2015. F.A. Davis Company,The Theory of Bureaucratic Caring as a Holographic Theory,Provides a means for nurses and other professionals
to change
to realize the integral nature of the dynamic unity of the human and environment
Rather than continuing mechanistic approaches of prediction and control
*,Copyright © 2015. F.A. Davis Company,Contemporary Nursing Practice,Nursing occurs in organizations that are generally bureaucratic or systematic in nature
Bureaucracies are a valuable tool
Identify
Understand
Principles that undergird coordinated and relational organizational systems
*,Copyright © 2015. F.A. Davis Company,Organizational Culture,Paradigm for understanding organizations
Founded in Anthropology
Social constructions
Symbolically formed
Reproduced through interaction
Studied formally and informally
*,Copyright © 2015. F.A. Davis Company,Types of Organizational Cultures,Informal
Integration of codes of ethics and conduct
Commitment
Identity
Coherence
Formal
Power and authority
Political
Legal
*,Copyright © 2015. F.A. Davis Company,Work of Nursing Within the Organizational Cultures,Undervalued in terms of cost and worth
Currently evaluated in terms of patient safety and clinical nursing leadership
New interest in evaluating meaningfulness of work
Directly helping others
Creating products that help others (Cuilla, 2000)
*,Copyright © 2015. F.A. Davis Company,Work of Nursing,Traditional
Directly helping others through knowledgeable caring (Watson, 2005)
Contemporary
Directly helping others
Legal context
Economic context
*,Copyright © 2015. F.A. Davis Company,Call for the Reinvention of Work,Re-seeing the good of nursing
Incorporation of business principles and relational self-organization
Searching for meaning in the complexities of life and work
*,Copyright © 2015. F.A. Davis Company,Organizational Cultures as Transformational Bureaucracies,Transformation of nurses toward relational self-organization and creativity
Moving from invisibility to visibility
Identifying nurses caring work as
Having value
Expression of one’s soul
Spiritual-ethical caring
*,Copyright © 2015. F.A. Davis Company,Characteristics of Bureaucracies
Eisenberg & Goodall (1993),Division of labor
Hierarchy of offices
General set of performance rules
Separation of personal from professional
Employment viewed as a career
Equal treatment of employees or standards of fairness
Protection of dismissal by tenure
Personal selection based on technical and professional qualifications
*,Copyright © 2015. F.A. Davis Company,Caring as the Unifying Focus of Nursing,Caring in nursing
Brings things into being
Holistic, humane, and dynamic
Essence of nursing
Social mandate
Manifested in different and complex ways
*,Copyright © 2015. F.A. Davis Company,Complexity and Nursing Theory,Complexity theory—opposing things occur at the same time (Thoma, 2003). Therefore, linear and nonlinear, and simple and complex systems exist together.Ray’s Theory of Bureaucratic Caring Essay.
Gives rise to Chaos Theory—the notion that the concept of order exists within disorder at the system communication (Davidson & Ray, 1991).Ray’s Theory of Bureaucratic Caring Essay.
*,Copyright © 2015. F.A. Davis Company,Paradigms,Prevailing worldviews in nursing
Direct nursing theories
Enfold the care and caring ideal
*,Copyright © 2015. F.A. Davis Company,Types of Paradigms,Totality (Fawcett, 1993)
Demonstrated nursing, person, society, environment, and health characterize the nature of nursing
Simultaneity (Parse, 1987)
Illuminates the human-environment integral nature of nursing
Unitary-transformative (Newman, 1992)
The view that the human being is unitary and evolving as a self-organizing field identified by pattern and interaction with the larger whole. Health is considered expanding consciousness
*,Copyright © 2015. F.A. Davis Company,The Theory of Bureaucratic Caring,Has its roots in all the these paradigms by synthesis of
Caring
Organizational (bureaucratic) context
Holism
Human-environment integral relationship
*,Copyright © 2015. F.A. Davis Company,Bureaucratic Caring Theory: Emergent in Grounded Theory,Originated as a Grounded Theory (Ray, 1981)
Qualitative study of caring in organizational culture
Study revealed nurses struggled with the paradox of
Serving the bureaucracy while-
Serving human beings through caring
*,Copyright © 2015. F.A. Davis Company,Discovery of Bureaucratic Caring Resulted in:,Substantive Theory: Differential Caring Theory
Caring is complex
Differentiated in terms of context
Practice settings
Formal Theory: Bureaucratic Caring Theory
Synthesis of caring as humanistic and antithesis of caring as economic, political, legal, and technological
*,Copyright © 2015. F.A. Davis Company,Dimensions of Bureaucratic Caring,Caring as humanistic
Social
Educational
Ethical
Religious/spiritual
Caring as economic
Political
Economic
Legal
Technological
*,Copyright © 2015. F.A. Davis Company,Theory of Bureaucratic Caring as a Holographic Theory,Holographic Theory:
Interconnectedness of all things – the whole and the part are interconnected
Knowledge exists in relationship rather than the object world or subjective experience
Uncertainty is inherent in relationships because everything is in process
Nature or meaning of the whole is complex
*,Copyright © 2015. F.A. Davis Company,Theory of Bureaucratic Caring as a Holographic Theory (continued),The synthesis of caring as humanistic and caring as economic within the Theory of Bureaucratic Caring shows that everything is interconnected
The whole is in the part and the part is in the whole, a holon.
We are all creative manifestations of the oneness of the environment.
*,Copyright © 2015. F.A. Davis Company,Research Demonstrates,The economic dimension of Bureaucratic Caring is dominant.
Nursing and caring are experiential and influenced by social structures.
Interactions and symbolic interactions are formed and reproduced from dominant values held within organizations.Ray’s Theory of Bureaucratic Caring Essay.
*,Copyright © 2015. F.A. Davis Company,The Theory of Bureaucratic Caring,Has been embraced by
Educators
Researchers
Nursing administrators
Clinicians
Who desire an understanding of how to preserve humanistic caring within the business or corporate culture
*,Copyright © 2015. F.A. Davis Company,Relational Caring Complexity a Metatheory,Ray and Turkel (2012) continue to advance their collaborative ideas related to theory development, caring science, and the paradox between caring and economics within complex systems.
A metatheory (Ritzer, 1991) emerged from the integration of the following:
The Theory of Bureaucratic Caring (Ray, 1981, 2006)
Struggling to Find a Balance: The Paradox Between Caring and Economics (Turkel 1997, 2001)
Relational Complexity (Ray & Turkel, 2012; Turkel & Ray, 2000).Ray’s Theory of Bureaucratic Caring Essay.
*,Copyright © 2015. F.A. Davis Company,Relational Caring Complexity a Metatheory,Reveals the complexity of today’s nursing practice situation
While providing a foundation for emerging professional practice models focused on caring and healing
An innovative transdisciplinary research looking at caring and economics
Continually giving voice to the value of caring in nursing within and a part of complex organizations allows for spiritual-ethical caring to occur.
*,Copyright © 2015. F.A. Davis Company,Theory of Bureaucratic Caring as a Middle-Range Theory,Relatively large scope but does not capture the full range of phenomena of a discipline
Narrower in scope than grand theories
Abstract enough to extend beyond specific data
Specific enough for testing or permitting transformational practice interventions
Fall between the concrete world of practice and grand theories
*,Copyright © 2015. F.A. Davis Company,Theory of Bureaucratic Caring as a Middle-Range Theory (continued),Bureaucratic Caring
Reflects the concrete world of practice
Responds to the caring ideal that is unique to nursing
Is both a grounded theory and a middle-range theory
May be considered a grand or holographic theory
*,Copyright © 2015. F.A. Davis Company,Summary,Nursing in complex organizations has to evolve.
Caring is the primordial construct and consciousness of nursing.
Nurses are calling for expression of their own spiritual and ethical existence.Ray’s Theory of Bureaucratic Caring Essay.
The Theory of Bureaucratic Caring as a Holographic Theory can lead the way.
*,Copyright © 2015. F.A. Davis Company,References,Davidson, A., & Ray, M. (1991). Studying the human-environment phenomenon using the science of,complexity. Advances in Nursing Science, 14(2), 73–87.,Fawcett, J. (1993). From a plethora of paradigms to parsimony in worldviews. Nursing Science Quarterly, 6, 56–58.,Newman, M. (1992). Prevailing paradigms in nursing. Nursing Outlook, 40, 10–14.,Parse, R. (1987). Nursing science: Maps, paradigms, theories, and critiques. Philadelphia: W. B. Saunders.Ray’s Theory of Bureaucratic Caring Essay.,Ray, M. (1981). A study of caring within the institutional culture. Unpublished doctoral dissertation. Salt Lake,City, UT: University of Utah.,Ray, M. (2006). Marilyn Anne Ray’s Theory of Bureaucratic Caring. In: M. Parker (Ed.), Nursing theories, nursing,practice (2nd ed.). Philadelphia: F. A. Davis.,Ray, M. & Turkel, M. (2012). A transtheoretical evolution of caring science within complex systerms. International Journal for Human Caring, 16(2), 28-49.Ray’s Theory of Bureaucratic Caring Essay.,Discussion: Ray’s Theory of Bureaucratic Caring,Discussion: Ray’s Theory of Bureaucratic Caring
Copyright © 2015. F.A. Davis Company,References,Ritzer, G., (1992 Metatheorizing: Newbury park, CA:sage.),Thoma, H. (2003). Holistic science: All at the same time. Resurgence, 1(216), 15–17.,Turkel, M. (1997). Struggling to find a balance: A grounded theory study of the nurse-patient relationship in the changing health care environment. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Miami, Florida. Microfilm #9805958.,Turkel, M. (2001). Struggling to find a balance: The paradox between caring and economics. Nursing,Administration Quarterly, 26(1), 67–82.,Turkel, M., & Ray, M. (2000). Relational complexity: A theory of the nurse-patient relationship within an,economic context. Nursing Science Quarterly, 13(4), 307–313.,Watson, J. (2005). Caring science as sacred science. Philadelphia: F. A. Davis.Ray’s Theory of Bureaucratic Caring Essay.,Discussion: Ray’s Theory of Bureaucratic Caring,Discussion: Ray’s Theory of Bureaucratic Caring,You must proofread your paper. But do not strictly rely on your computer’s spell-checker and grammar-checker; failure to do so indicates a lack of effort on your part and you can expect your grade to suffer accordingly. Papers with numerous misspelled words and grammatical mistakes will be penalized. Read over your paper – in silence and then aloud – before handing it in and make corrections as necessary. Often it is advantageous to have a friend proofread your paper for obvious errors. Handwritten corrections are preferable to uncorrected mistakes.Ray’s Theory of Bureaucratic Caring Essay.,Use a standard 10 to 12 point (10 to 12 characters per inch) typeface. Smaller or compressed type and papers with small margins or single-spacing are hard to read. It is better to let your essay run over the recommended number of pages than to try to compress it into fewer pages.Ray’s Theory of Bureaucratic Caring Essay.,Likewise, large type, large margins, large indentations, triple-spacing, increased leading (space between lines), increased kerning (space between letters), and any other such attempts at “padding” to increase the length of a paper are unacceptable, wasteful of trees, and will not fool your professor.Ray’s Theory of Bureaucratic Caring Essay.,The paper must be neatly formatted, double-spaced with a one-inch margin on the top, bottom, and sides of each page. When submitting hard copy, be sure to use white paper and print out using dark ink. If it is hard to read your essay, it will also be hard to follow your argument.,ADDITIONAL INSTRUCTIONS FOR THE CLASS,Discussion Questions (DQ),Initial responses to the DQ should address all components of the questions asked, include a minimum of one scholarly source, and be at least 250 words.
Successful responses are substantive (i.e., add something new to the discussion, engage others in the discussion, well-developed idea) and include at least one scholarly source.
One or two sentence responses, simple statements of agreement or “good post,” and responses that are off-topic will not count as substantive. Substantive responses should be at least 150 words.
I encourage you to incorporate the readings from the week (as applicable) into your responses.
Weekly Participation,Your initial responses to the mandatory DQ do not count toward participation and are graded separately.
In addition to the DQ responses, you must post at least one reply to peers (or me) on three separate days, for a total of three replies.
Participation posts do not require a scholarly source/citation (unless you cite someone else’s work).
Part of your weekly participation includes viewing the weekly announcement and attesting to watching it in the comments. These announcements are made to ensure you understand everything that is due during the week.Ray’s Theory of Bureaucratic Caring Essay.
APA Format and Writing Quality,Familiarize yourself with APA format and practice using it correctly. It is used for most writing assignments for your degree. Visit the Writing Center in the Student Success Center, under the Resources tab in LoudCloud for APA paper templates, citation examples, tips, etc. Points will be deducted for poor use of APA format or absence of APA format (if required).
Cite all sources of information! When in doubt, cite the source. Paraphrasing also requires a citation.
I highly recommend using the APA Publication Manual, 6th edition.
Use of Direct Quotes,I discourage overutilization of direct quotes in DQs and assignments at the Masters’ level and deduct points accordingly.
As Masters’ level students, it is important that you be able to critically analyze and interpret information from journal articles and other resources. Simply restating someone else’s words does not demonstrate an understanding of the content or critical analysis of the content.
It is best to paraphrase content and cite your source.
LopesWrite Policy,For assignments that need to be submitted to LopesWrite, please be sure you have received your report and Similarity Index (SI) percentage BEFORE you do a “final submit” to me.
Once you have received your report, please review it. This report will show you grammatical, punctuation, and spelling errors that can easily be fixed. Take the extra few minutes to review instead of getting counted off for these mistakes.
Review your similarities. Did you forget to cite something? Did you not paraphrase well enough? Is your paper made up of someone else’s thoughts more than your own?
Visit the Writing Center in the Student Success Center, under the Resources tab in LoudCloud for tips on improving your paper and SI score.
Late Policy,The university’s policy on late assignments is 10% penalty PER DAY LATE. This also applies to late DQ replies.
Please communicate with me if you anticipate having to submit an assignment late. I am happy to be flexible, with advance notice. We may be able to work out an extension based on extenuating circumstances.
If you do not communicate with me before submitting an assignment late, the GCU late policy will be in effect.Ray’s Theory of Bureaucratic Caring Essay.
I do not accept assignments that are two or more weeks late unless we have worked out an extension.
As per policy, no assignments are accepted after the last day of class. Any assignment submitted after midnight on the last day of class will not be accepted for grading.Ray’s Theory of Bureaucratic Caring Essay.
Communication,Communication is so very important. There are multiple ways to communicate with me:
Questions to Instructor Forum: This is a great place to ask course content or assignment questions. If you have a question, there is a good chance one of your peers does as well. This is a public forum for the class.
Individual Forum: This is a private forum to ask me questions or send me messages. This will be checked at least once every 24 hours.Ray’s Theory of Bureaucratic Caring Essay.

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