Pathophysiology and Pharmacology6.

Pathophysiology and Pharmacology6.

Pathophysiology and Pharmacology6.,Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS): Pathophysiology and Treatment
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a condition affecting the gastrointestinal tract that is hallmarked by repeated abdominal pains and changes in bowel habits. It is more common in women than in men (Huether&McCance, 2017). There is abscence of any overt organic pathological process and the changes in bowel activity alternate between diarrhoea and constipation (Hammer & McPhee, 2014). IBS patients are likely to have psychological symptoms like depression and anxiety. The exact pathophysiology of IBS is not yet well understood. Pathophysiology and Pharmacology6., ,

Pathophysiology
The pathophysiologic evidence that is available points at changes in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) normal flora (microflora). The others are altered immune responses, genetics and disturbances in the brain-GIT axis (Huether&McCance, 2017). The result is changes in motility, visceral sensitivity, and permeability. For those with the IBS of diarrhoea (IBS-D), there are abnormal secretions leading to faster colonic transit and raised intestinal permeability. On the other hand, those with IBS of constipation (IBS-C) have lowered transit times and reduced intestinal motility. These changes are attributed to altered regulation of the brain-gut axis and changes in the neuro-endocrine cells.Other pathophysiologic factors have been found to be food allergies and psychosocial factors like stress and trauma (epigenetic factors). Infectious processes may also play a part. Pathophysiology and Pharmacology6.
Patient Education
The patient education strategies that will be aimed at these patients with IBS will focus on several fronts. Avoiding stimulants will prevent interference with the brain-gut axis. Relaxing and avoiding stress will calm the nerves, while avoiding specific foods will eliminate the allergic trigger. Finally is eating fibre, drinking lots of water, and exercise.
Drug Treatment of IBS
Several medications can be used to manage the symptoms of IBS. Three of these are described below. Their main aim is to relieve abdominal pain and discomfort, and improve bowel function (Katzung, 2018, p. 1,101).
1. Lubiprostone (Amitiza) Pathophysiology and Pharmacology6.
This is a calcium channel activator that is used in IBS with dominant constipation (IBS-C). It acts by stimulating type 2 chloride channel (CIC-2) in the small intestines (Katzung, 2018, p. 1,099). This increases secretion of chloride-rich fluid into the intestines, increasing motility and shortening transit time. Normally it is given 8mcg twice daily. The main side effect to be monitored is nausea.Lubiprostone (Amitiza) interacts with methadone, which appears to reduce its efficacy.
2. Alosetronhydrochloride (Lotronex) Pathophysiology and Pharmacology6.
This drug is used to treat IBS with diarrhoea (IBS-D). It acts by way of being a selective receptor agonist. It undergoes significant first pass metabolism in the liver and is excreted by the kidneys.It is usually given 1mg once or twice daily (Katzung, 2018, p. 1,102). Its side effects include GIT toxicity, constipation, and ischemic colitis. It interacts with the drug fluvoxamine, and should not be given together.
3. Rifaximin(Xifaxan)
This is an antibiotic active against both Gram positive and Gram negative microbes. It acts by inhibiting bacterial protein synthesis. Its side effects include pruritus (itching), dizziness, nausea, and fatigue amongst others.Rifaximin interacts with amiodarone, and concomitant use is not advisable as they affect each other’s efficacy. Pathophysiology and Pharmacology6.

Questions Related to Pathophysiology and Pharmacology6.

Did not find what you wanted? Get help from our experts.

Find a Perfect and Reliable Professional Essay Writer Helper to write your essay for a Reasonable Price.

best essay writing service

Need help with your Assignment?

Give us your paper requirements,and we’ll deliver the highest-quality essay at only $13 a page.

Some of the free features you will receive:

Find a perfect and reliable professional for your essay writing needs.

Essay Writing Services

If you are a student who is struggling to meet tight deadlines, we are here to help! Do you need to employ an essay writing service? Hire us if you want the best essays. We are a dedicated staff of professional, well-seasoned, and superb essay writer helpers.

Dissertation Writing Services

Did you know we provide the best dissertation writing service on the internet? We continue to receive favorable feedback from our consumers about the excellent work we produce. So, instead of worrying about whom to pay for the dissertation, contact us. We are a dedicated staff of professional, well-seasoned, and superb essay writer helpers.

Assignment Writing Services

We attempt to provide the essay help you require ensuring, that your papers are of the highest quality. When you decide to work with us, we assess your requirements and find the best writer to assist you with your essay. We are a dedicated staff of professional, well-seasoned, and superb essay writer helpers.

Nursing Essays Writing Services

Here’s how it works: you place an order for a nursing essay, and we deliver. It’s as easy as it sounds. This is workable because we have the greatest professional paper writers that are both quick and skilled. We will assign your assignment to the most qualified writer

Coursework Writing Help

Our staff of qualified and professional paper writers has continuously distinguished us as the best coursework writing help service. They are all-natural English speakers with advanced degrees in a variety of professions. We offer the best essay writing services.

Article Writing Services

Our knowledgeable and expert article writing paper writers have advanced degrees in a variety of subjects. We will assign the most appropriate one to you based on the field and topic of your article review. They are all fluent English speakers who fully grasp your requirements. We are a dedicated staff of professional, well-seasoned, and superb essay writer helpers

You May Also Like…

Home

Essay Writing Service for working students Is it an essay, an article, or a report? Worry No More!! We offer solutions...

read more

0 Comments

Submit a Comment

Your email address will not be published.