Pathophysiology and Pharmacology.

Pathophysiology and Pharmacology.

Pathophysiology and Pharmacology., ,Pathophysiology and Pharmacology: Sepsis
DQ 5.1
Sepsis refers to the life-threatening syndrome that is normally caused by injury or infection. Sepsis is the body’s response to the immune system that causes organ failure or organ dysfunction. Sepsis occurs when an infection elicits a localized inflammatory response that spills over to result in systemic symptoms of fever, tachypnea, hypothermia, and tachycardia(László et al, 2015).Pathophysiology and Pharmacology.
Pathophysiology of Sepsis,Serious infection or injury triggers a systemic inflammatory syndrome. The systemic response to serious infections or injury results to the reduced ability of the body and immune system to fight infections; this can lead to sepsis or multiple organ failure. The microcirculatory changes that occur in patients with sepsis include impaired cellular communication, altered glycocalyx, impaired endothelial function, as well as changes in adhesion and production of blood cells such as platelets, white blood cells, and red blood cells (McConnell& Craig, 2016). Normally, the normal immune response has numerous feedback mechanisms whose function is to reinstate homeostasis in response to an injury of infection.Pathophysiology and Pharmacology. Increased amounts of anti-inflammatory cytokines, persistent inflammation, as well as immunosuppression can result to sepsis and perhaps multiple organ failure if the body is not able to go back to homeostasis state (McConnell& Craig, 2016). The cascade of events involved in the inflammatory response results to symptoms such as hypothermia, hyperthermia, leukopenia, tachycardia, leukocytosis, and other symptoms such as hyperglycemia, increased levels of procalcitonin and altered mental status. Generally, sepsis occurs when the response of the body to infection or injury gets out of balance, and as a result triggers changes that can cause damage to the multiple organ systems (McConnell& Craig, 2016).
Patient Education
Patient education should include educating patients and their families regarding factors that can trigger a response. Education may, therefore, include educating patients on infection prevention for example by following the appropriate infection control measures such as hand-washing and ensuring patient get the required immunizations. Patients also need to be educated on how to manage chronic conditions and seek medical care immediately if signs of severe infection are noted (László et al, 2015).Pathophysiology and Pharmacology.,DQ 5.2
Sepsis is mostly caused by a bacterial infection and therefore the mainstay of sepsis treatment includes antibiotics. One of the antibiotics that are commonly used in sepsis is ceftriaxone. Ceftriaxone works by hindering the synthesis of mucopeptide within the cell wall of the bacteria (Shimels et al, 2015). The beta-lactam moiety of Ceftriaxone binds into the transpeptidases, carboxypeptidases, as well as endopeptidases within the cytoplasmic membrane of the bacteria. These enzymes take part in cell division as well as in the synthesis of the cell wall of the bacteria. When the beta-lactam moiety of Ceftriaxone binds to the enzymes, a defective cell wall is formed and bacterial cell death occurs(Sileshi et al, 2016).Pathophysiology and Pharmacology.
Ceftriaxone is well tolerated. Some of the side effects associated with the medication include hypersensitivity, hematologic reactions such as anemia, gastrointestinal effects such as diarrhea, hepatic effects, and central nervous system effects such as headache and dizziness (Sileshi et al, 2016).
After administering ceftriaxone to patients, one should be aware that some patients allergic to penicillin may react to the medication. When ceftriaxone is administered through IV, the patient should be monitored closely for an allergy to penicillin to make sure that no cross sensitivity occurs. In addition, it is important to monitor the patient for any sign of super-infection, diarrhea, anemia, and ensure the appropriate treatment is provided (Shimels et al, 2015).Pathophysiology and Pharmacology.
DQ 5.1
Choose a medical condition from the cardiovascular system and lymphatic system and explain the pathophysiology changes that may occur. What patient education would need to be included related to this disorder? Choose a medical condition different from that of your fellow students.
DQ 5.2
Select a medication used in evidence-based treatment guidelines for the condition chosen in the first discussion question. Share the mechanism of action of this medication and hints for monitoring, side effects, and drug interactions of which one should be aware. Make sure that you select a different medication than your peers. Include the name of the medication in the subject line so that the medications can be followed. Include your references in APA style.Pathophysiology and Pharmacology., 

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