Pathophysiology and Pharmacology: Asthma., ,Pathophysiology and Pharmacology: Asthma
Asthma is a chronic disease that is characterized by inflammation of the airway with recurring episodes of breath shortness, wheezing, chest tightness, and coughing. These episodes are due to obstruction of the airflow(Bonsignore et al, 2015).,Pathophysiology
Several pathophysiologic factors such as inflammation of the bronchiolar, constriction of the airway and resistance that is characterized by symptoms such as breath shortness, wheezing, chest tightness, and coughing(Bonsignore et al, 2015).Pathophysiology and Pharmacology: Asthma.
The pathophysiology of asthma involves inflammation of the airway, obstruction of airflow and bronchial hyperresponsiveness. When inflammation of the airway occurs, there is mucus secretion, edema, and damage to the muscle and epithelial and this can result to airflow obstruction, bronchoconstriction with broncho¬spasm, and bronchial reactivity(Kudo et al, 2013). Pathophysiology and Pharmacology: Asthma.The contraction of the smooth muscle of the bronchus, edema, andbronchospasm, leads to the narrowing of the airway. In addition, obstruction of the airway leads to various changes such as acute bronchoconstriction, edema for the airway, formation of the mucous plug, and remodeling of the airway (Bonsignore et al, 2015). The increased mucus secretion can lead to the development of thick mucus plugs that obstruct the airway. Epithelium injury may lead to epithelial peeling resulting in airway impairment. Due to the epithelial loss, the allergens can penetrate which causes hyperresponsiveness, which causes bronchospasm characteristic symptoms of breath shortness, wheezing, chest tightness, and coughing after being exposed to allergens, cold, and other irritants (Kudo et al, 2013).Pathophysiology and Pharmacology: Asthma.,Patient Education
Patient education is essential in the management of asthma. Patient education related to asthma includes teaching the patient and the family how to optimize environmental controls, identification of symptoms and signs of asthma, and how to utilize a peak flow meter. It is also important to educate the patient about smoke cessation since it is a precipitating factor to asthma attacks(Kudo et al, 2013). In addition, the patient should be educated regarding the importance of annual vaccinations, since asthma elevates the risk of respiratory diseases like pneumonia and influenza.Pathophysiology and Pharmacology: Asthma.
Medication: Ipratropium Bromide
Ipratropium bromide is an anticholinergic bronchodilator that is administered through inhalation and expands the airways within the lungs by relaxing airways muscles and thus increases airflow to the lungs. The medication is utilized in the treatment of asthma symptoms. When the medication is inhaled, it goes directly to the airways.Ipratropium bromide obstructs the effect of acetylcholine on the nasal passages and the airways (Donohue et al, 2016). Acetylcholine is a chemical used by nerves in communicating with the muscle cells. In asthma, the cholinergic nerves linked to the lungs lead to the airway narrowing due to the contraction of airway muscles. The anticholinergic of the ipratropium bromide obstructs the effect of the cholinergic nerves and this causes relaxation of the muscles and dilation of the airways. Nerves that use acetylcholine during communication also control mucous glands within the nose and therefore when ipratropium bromide blocks the acetylcholine, the asthma symptoms such as prevention of mucus secretions within the nose are relieved(Donohue et al, 2016).
Side effects associated with ipratropium bromide include headache, coughing, dry mouth, nausea, sinus pain, voice hoarseness, nose stuffiness, constipation, body aches, chills, fever, flu symptoms, back pain, blurred vision, and also dizziness(Koumbourlis& Mastropietro, 2015).
Drug interactions associated with ipratropium include acetylcholinesteraseinhibitors that may reduce the therapeutic effect and the efficacy of the medication. On the other hand, Aclidinium and Amantadine may augment the anticholinergic effect of ipratropium(Donohue et al, 2016).
The monitoring parameters with ipratropium include peak flow as well as pulmonary function tests; pulse rate; blood pressure; serum glucose; signs of glaucoma; hypersensitivity; and shortness of breath. Finally, it is important to educate the patient regarding medication use and the associated side effects (Koumbourlis& Mastropietro, 2015).Pathophysiology and Pharmacology: Asthma.