Discuss, paying attention to, and agreeing or disagreeing with, our coverage of Augustus and his career, as presented to you in class.

Each answer should be not more than about 1 page, single-spaced.
1. What, in your view, can we learn from Catiline and the Gracchi brothers? Be sure in your answer to consider the issues (and controversy) surrounding the way that the Gracchi presented the problems of the time, as discussed in class.
2. Augustus, Res Gestae, 34:
In my sixth and seventh consulates (28-27 B.C.E.), after putting out the civil war, having obtained all things by universal consent, I handed over the state from my power to the dominion of the senate and Roman people. And for this merit of mine, by a senate decree, I was called Augustus and the doors of my temple were publicly clothed with laurel and a civic crown was fixed over my door and a gold shield placed in the Julian senate-house, and the inscription of that shield testified to the virtue, mercy, justice, and piety, for which the senate and Roman people gave it to me. After that time, I exceeded all in influence, but I had no greater power than the others who were colleagues with me in each magistracy.
Propaganda, or fact? Neither? Discuss, paying attention to, and agreeing or disagreeing with, our coverage of Augustus and his career, as presented to you in class.

May.15th lecture 4

First punic war: 264-241

–Result: 20 years of war

–Would need sth special from Rome or Carthage
to win

–Carthage: mercenaries, but good navy

–Rome: excellent army, no
well-established naval force

–Result: statement

Trireme

–3 banks of oars

–Corvus (boarding ramp)

Quinquereme is heavier, 5 banks of oars

Naval warfare in ancient world

n Rams

n Immobillisation

–roman idea: make it a land
battle, on water

–board using corvus/raven (but problems)

–grapnel

–physically seize enemy ships, or ram them

–armoured
sailors cannot swim very well

Polybius, on the corvus

–Roman shipbuilding
program-superhuman effort

–But now, had to learn how to
fight at sea-no real experience

–Would have plenty of upsets,
errors… (storms too)

— in the meantime:

–256: 2 consulsà
Africa; ambitious, war on Carthaginian territory

–Plunder of countryside; 1 cos.
Home, Other remained:

–Marcus atilius regulus

–255: defeated Carthaginians;
camped at Tunis

–Negotiations, rejected by Rome

–Spartan mercenary, Xanthippus-
replaced local commanders

–Romans crushed; regulus
captured

–romans crushed; regulus
captured

–With regulus- what is true and
what is legend?

–Deal with humiliation by
mythologizing it!

–Ex. Romans defeated b/c of
massive snake

–Legend- in captivity until 250

–Gave parole to Carthaginians;
sent to Rome to negotiate

–In his speech to senate- urged
no surrender

–Returned to Carthageà
met his end

–Regulus: reluctant here,
duty> personal need

–source: Horace-reliable?

–Ode 3.5; titled, no surrender

–Warning to lax romans of his own day

–Holds up regulus as ideal model

–Intensely
patriotic in period of civil war

–Regulus’ death

–Xanthippus, and the leaky ship

–All of this: Rome’s north
African invasion- not a success

–More setbacks for Rome

–254: fleet to Africa, rescue
survivors

–Defeated Carthaginian fleet,
but then massive storm

–Romans massive effort at
Panormus-Sicily

–250: lucius caecilius metellus,
army, crushed Carthaginian attack

–Huge triumph in rome, with 100
elephants

–But then chickens…

Drepanum, 249, western coast of
sicily

Publius Claudius pulcher

–Frustrated by progress of siege
of Carthaginian base at lilibaeum (western Sicily)

Decided to take offensive

Auspieces: the sacred chickens

Let them drink, since they don’t
want to eat

Result: romans suffered horrible
defeat

Pulcher accused of sacrilege for
killing scared chickens

–War dragged on to an end with
reverses/benefits for each side

–241: Romans finally achieved
naval victory, off Sicily

–Carthaginian commander: Hamilcar
– peace treaty

–Indemnity: triggered mercenary
revolt

–The “truceless war” – savage

–Rome took opportunity: Sardinia

–Carthage shattered

–Sent Hamilcar Barca (father of Hannibal)
to Spain – rebuild

èWould
lead to new struggle

Consequences of the war

Four main consequences

1. Carthage lost Sicily, Sardinia,
paid reparations

–Rome now held territory outside of Italian peninsula

–Lead
to garrisons on Sicily, Sardinia and also Corsica

–Needed
administrators: praetorshipexpanded, sent overseas

2. widescale change in conduct of
warfare

–Previously
Rome followed seasonal pattern: some experience

–Now
consistently kept armies in field all year round

–Polybius
– Romans ambitious more daring, thinking of conquest

3. Rome now a naval power

–Needed
too for control of ex. Corsica, Sardinia

–Allowed
Rome to project power outside Italy

4. Significant increase in public
spending: ships, armies

–Army
had logistical needs

–Spawned
rise of ‘contractor class’ – the publicani, paid by the state to build, supply,
house, procure, etc.

–Currency
expanded, more issues: coins now also used to advertise Roman power (ex.
Coin of prow of ship) –propaganda

The second Punic war 218-201

The triumph of duty over individualism

–Defining event of the roman republic
before the civil wars

–Significant and far-reaching
consequences

–Main sources: Polybius, Livy

–Livy

–Lived
59 BC –AD 17-200 years after events f

–From
Padua

–Knew
personally Rome’s first emperor, Augustus

–Whole
work: cover beginning of Romeà own
day ex. 753-19, in 142 books- only 36 survive

–Livy looked to various traditions

–Oratory and fine writing: Cicero a
model

–Livy famously lazy, would not cross
Rome to see a document

–Sources? Other writers- make major use
of Polybius

–Selected and compiled info to suit his
agenda

–Often never mentions who he is using

–Livy writing after gut-wrenching civil
war

–Aim: react to this dislocation by
concentrating on values which made Rome great

–Superior
virtue, morality

–Nobility

–Character
and courage of Romans

–Other sources

–Hannibal’s court historians – lost

–Letters
and treaties, copied by Polybius


Writings of Scipio family?

Major players in story… dramatis
personae

The Scipios

The Barcids

–NB: multiple Scipios

–Publius
Cornelius Scipio

–Consul
218; died 211

–Gnaeus Cornelius Scipio ‘Calvus’ (the
bald)

–Brother
of Publius Cornelius Scipio

–Consul
222, died 211

–Piblius Cornelius scipio ‘africanus’

–Son
of Publius Cornelius Scipio, nephew of Gnaeus

–Ultimate
victor in second Punic war

–The other tem- the Barcids

–Hamilcar Barca, general of 1st
Punic war, d. 228, Spain

–Father
of Hannibal

–Husdrubal “the fair”

–Son-
in law of Hamilcar, d. 221

–Husdrubal Barca, general

–Brother
of Hannibal, d 207, Italy

–Mago Barca, general

–Brother
of Hannibal, d 203, on board ship

Hannibal- not a crazed demon

–Had read memoirs of Pyrrhus

–Barcid dynasty in Spain – Hellenistic
style dynasty

–Closer to Greek king than monster

–Adept at Greco-Roman propaganda

–Temple of Melqart (Hercules) in Grades
(Cadiz, Spain)

–12labours of Hercules: drove oxen of
Geryon though Spain and Gaul over the Alps

–Cacus (giant) on Aventine hill- steal
oxen, Hercules killed him

à Punishment of Rome – grounded in Greek
myth

àPosed as liberator of oppressed Greeks
in Sicily, Italy

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